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Earth's movements have a significant impact on the men and geographical consequences: the alternation of the day and night and the cycle of the seasons. We must imagine the Earth spinning around its own axis like a spinning top and also has a rotating circular path around the sun. To this fact we must add the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the plane in which it travels around the sun.
The Congress of Vienna was held in Austria from October 1, 1814 and June 9, 1815. Year in which Napoleon Bonaparte returned to Cannes, Paris, from exile in Elba, Belgium, in May of that year.
The purpose of the congress was to reestablish the borders of Europe and return to the absolutist doctrine imposed by the old regime since 1789. It was organized by the Austrian Emperor Francis I in the bringing together representatives from all European countries: Russia represented by Noselrode and Tsar Alexander I, Castlereagh led Britain, France and Foreign Minister Talleyrand good negotiator and Austria led by Francisco I, but represented by Metternich.
The orientation and location on the Earth's surface is vital for humans so without having a cardinal references would be impossible the situation on Earth. To do this it uses the four cardinal points called East, West, North and South.
These were determined from the observation of the earth and the movement it had (rotation) in relation to sun. The Earth rotates on the contrary of clockwise and where we see to appear the sun is called East, which comes from the Old English "east" and is translated as aurora.
Throughout the history of mankind there have been civilizations all over the world who believed that the Earth was flat and stood at the center of the universe , so any scientist who opposed these beliefs and tried to prove something different they paid with their life like Galileo Galilei , who wasn't eventually punished for saying what the judges wanted to hear , but was rejected by the entire scientific community .
Already in the sixth century BC Anaximander ( Ionian philosopher ) and Hecataeus of Miletus ( Greek historian ) formed the first hypothesis that the Earth was round and thus the early Greek maps reflecting this fact.